According to Johnson, Johnson and Holubec (1998), cooperative efforts have three major positive results:
- Greater efforts to achieve, including higher achievement by all students, long-term retention, intrinsic motivation, more time spent on task, development of higher-order reasoning and critical thinking (p.1:7).
- More positive relationships among students, including "esprit-de-corps, caring and committed relationships, personal and academic social support, valuing of diversity, and cohesion (p.1:7).
- Greater psychological health, "general psychological adjustment, ego-strength, social development, social competencies, self-esteem, self-identity, and ability to cope with adversity and stress” (p.1:7).
Johnson, D., Johnson, R.& Holubec, E. (1998).Cooperation in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.