Five Steps in Using Cooperative Learning

  1. Use three types of cooperative learning groups: formal, informal, and cooperative base groups. (For more information see Chapter 1) 

  2. Teach students social skills (For more information see Chapter 5) 

  3. Integrate all three goal structures: cooperative, competitive, and individualistic. 

  4. Utilize creative conflict: Use academic controversies to facilitate achievement and cognitive and social development, and implement the peacemaker program. 

  5. Create a cooperative school: Empower teachers through cooperative teams(Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1998).


                     Johnson, D., Johnson, R.& Holubec, E. (1998).Cooperation in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.