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Timeline of the History of Cooperative Learning

This is a partial timeline on the history of cooperative learning from Johnson, Johnson and Holubec (1998, p. 3:2-3:3)

 

Date

Event

Early 1900s

John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky

1960s

 

1960s

Stuart Cook: Research on cooperation

Madsen (Kagan): Research on cooperation & competition in children

Bruner, Suchman: Inquiry (Discovery) Learning Movement

B. F. Skinner: Programmed learning, behavior modification

1962

Morton Deutsch (Nebraska Symposium): Cooperation & trust, conflict

Robert Blake & Jane Mouton: Research on intergroup competition

1966

 

1969

David Johnson, U of MN: Begins training teachers in Cooperative Learning

Roger Johnson: Joins David at U of MN

1970s

 

1970

David Johnson: Social Psychology of Education

1973

David DeVries & Keith Edwards: Combined instructional games approach with intergroup competition, teams-games-tournament

1974-1975

David & Roger Johnson: Research review on cooperation/competition

David & Roger Johnson: Learning Together and Alone

Mid 1970s

Annual Symposium at APA (David DeVries & Keith Edwards, David & Roger Johnson, Stuart Cook, Elliot Aronson, Elizabeth Cohen, others)

Robert Slavin: Begins development of cooperative curricula

Spencer Kagan: Continued research on cooperation among children

1976

Shlomo &Yael Sharan: Small Group Teaching (group investigation)

1978

Elliot Aronson: Jigsaw Classroom,

Journal of Research & Development in Education, (Cooperation Issue)

Jeanne Gibbs: Tribes 

1980s

 

1981, 1983

David & Roger Johnson: Meta-analyses of research on cooperation

1985

Elizabeth Cohen: Designing Groupwork

 

Spencer Kagan: Developed structures approach to cooperative learning

 

AERA and ASCD special interest groups founded

1989

David & Roger Johnson:

Cooperation & Competition-

Theory & Research 

1990s

 

Early 1990s

Cooperative learning gains popularity among educators

1996

First Annual Cooperative Learning Leadership Conference, Minneapolis

Despite people’s history of cooperation, a myth persists that the world is based on the competitive principle of “survival of the fittest.” However, cooperation has been found to be directly related to success, and competitiveness has been found detrimental to career success. "The more competitive a person is, the less chance he or she has of being successful" (Kohn, 1996).

If competitiveness seems to be so unfavorable to career success, why is it so predominant in classrooms? The answer may be found by studying the research comparing the relative effects of competitive, individualistic, and cooperative efforts (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1998).

Reference

           Johnson, D., Johnson, R.& Holubec, E. (1998).Cooperation in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.