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Definition of Interdependence

“Positive interdependence is linking students together so one cannot succeed unless all group members succeed. Group members have to know that they sink or swim together.” (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1998, p. 4:7).


“When students clearly understand positive interdependence, they understand that each group member’s efforts are required and indispensable for group success and that each group member has a unique contribution to make to the joint effort because of his or her resources and/or role and task responsibilities” (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec 1998).

Positive goal interdependence ensures that the group is united around a common goal, a concrete reason for being, such as “learning the assigned material and making sure that all other members of your group learn theassigned material” (Johnson, Johnson and Holubec, 1998, p. 4:8).


           Johnson, D., Johnson, R.& Holubec, E. (1998).Cooperation in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.