"The Communication stage allows searchers to organize, apply, and present new knowledge relevant to their research question or information need. They choose a format that appropriately reflects the new knowledge they need to convey, then plan and create their product. Teachers and School Library Media Specialists are encouraged to allow searchers to engage in selecting the appropriate communication format rather than specifying the format. This process will enable learners to become more critical viewers and users of multiple information formats" (Pappas & Tepe, 1997).

Note. Pathways to Knowledge (, by M.L. Pappas and A.E. Tepe, 1997, is used with permission from Follett Software Company. Copyright by Follett Software Company, 1391 Corporate Drive, McHenry, Illinois 60050.

Checklist of Observable Behaviors

Constructing and presenting new knowledge

    A. Apply information

    ___ 1. Organizing information for presentation

    ___ 2. Selecting an appropriate communication format

    ___ 3. Applying information to answer a question and/or solve a  problem

    ___ 4. Evaluating the format selection

    ___ 5. Satisfying information need

    ___ 6. Respecting intellectual property


    B. Share new knowledge

    ___ 1. Presenting new knowledge through selected formats

    ___ 2. Developing a draft or initial version

    ___ 3. Editing and revising

    ___ 4. Expressing ideas through creating, speaking, composing,  writing, or designing

    ___ 5. Expressing ideas through video, research report, experiment, computer presentation, animation, etc.


               Pappas, M.L., & Tepe, A.E. (1997).  Pathways to knowledge: Follett's Information Skills Model (3rd ed.).  McHenry, IL: Follett Software.  Available: 


    Students in a middle school history class have been learning about the Civil War. They are divided into groups to do a research paper, which can help them to prepare for their presentations on certain issues related to the Civil War period. Each group is responsible for selecting the best ways to share this information with their classmates. They may choose from creating a diorama, a re-enactment, a wall mural, a news flash, a video, or another format or combination of these formats for presentation to the class. Students create their product to present their information to the class. The teacher and school library media specialist help students evaluate their format selection.