Timeline of the History of Cooperative Learning
This is a partial timeline on the history of cooperative learning from Johnson, Johnson and Holubec (1998, p. 3:2-3:3)
John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky
Stuart Cook: Research on cooperation Madsen (Kagan): Research on cooperation & competition in children Bruner, Suchman: Inquiry (Discovery) Learning Movement B. F. Skinner: Programmed learning, behavior modification
Morton Deutsch (Nebraska Symposium): Cooperation & trust, conflict Robert Blake & Jane Mouton: Research on intergroup competition
David Johnson, U of MN: Begins training teachers in Cooperative Learning Roger Johnson: Joins David at U of MN
David Johnson: Social Psychology of Education
David DeVries & Keith Edwards: Combined instructional games approach with intergroup competition, teams-games-tournament
David & Roger Johnson: Research review on cooperation/competition David & Roger Johnson: Learning Together and Alone
Annual Symposium at APA (David DeVries & Keith Edwards, David & Roger Johnson, Stuart Cook, Elliot Aronson, Elizabeth Cohen, others) Robert Slavin: Begins development of cooperative curricula Spencer Kagan: Continued research on cooperation among children
Shlomo &Yael Sharan: Small Group Teaching (group investigation)
Elliot Aronson: Jigsaw Classroom,
Journal of Research & Development in Education, (Cooperation Issue)
Jeanne Gibbs: Tribes
David & Roger Johnson: Meta-analyses of research on cooperation
Elizabeth Cohen: Designing Groupwork
Spencer Kagan: Developed structures approach to cooperative learning
AERA and ASCD special interest groups founded
David & Roger Johnson: Cooperation & Competition- Theory & Research
Cooperative learning gains popularity among educators
First Annual Cooperative Learning Leadership Conference, Minneapolis
Despite people’s history of cooperation, a myth persists that the world is based on the competitive principle of “survival of the fittest.” However, cooperation has been found to be directly related to success, and competitiveness has been found detrimental to career success. "The more competitive a person is, the less chance he or she has of being successful" (Kohn, 1996).
If competitiveness seems to be so unfavorable to career success, why is it so predominant in classrooms? The answer may be found by studying the research comparing the relative effects of competitive, individualistic, and cooperative efforts (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1998).
Johnson, D., Johnson, R.& Holubec, E. (1998).Cooperation in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.