"During the Search stage, searchers identify appropriate information providers, resources and tools, then plan and implement a search strategy to find information relevant to their research question or information need. Searchers are open to using print and electronic tools and resources, cooperative searching and interaction with experts" (Pappas & Tepe, 1997).

Note. Pathways to Knowledge (, by M.L. Pappas and A.E. Tepe, 1997, is used with permission from Follett Software Company. Copyright by Follett Software Company, 1391 Corporate Drive, McHenry, Illinois 60050.


Checklist of Observable Behaviors

Planning and implementing my search strategy

          A. Identify information providers

___ 1. Identifying the resources and tools needed

           to answer  questions (e.g., schools,

           libraries, museums, home  resources,

           businesses, etc.)

___ 2. Cooperative searching

___ 3. Interaction with experts

___ 4. Applying resource location skills

B. Select information resources and tools

___ 1. Planning a search strategy

___ 2. Distinguishing among information sources

___ 3. Using information sources appropriately

___ 4. Gathering information from authentic and human 


___ 5. Developing search strategies for print and electronic 


___ 6. Selecting and using information tools (e.g., indexes, 

           catalogs, bibliographies, directories, search engines)

___ 7. Understanding the concept of linear (print) and

           nonlinear  (electronic) organization of information

___ 8. Evaluating the appropriateness of information

           providers,  tools, and resources

C. Seek relevant information

___   1. Finding relevant information

___   2. Skimming and scanning to gather information

___   3. Recording information through note taking, 

             summarizing,  quoting, and listing significant facts 

             (handwritten and/or electronic)

___   4. Recording bibliographic information

___   5. Asking questions to clarify meaning

___   6. Interviewing

___   7. Identifying alternative topics

___   8. Rechecking information

___   9. Determining relevancy of information (fact or fiction, 

             accuracy, currency, primary/secondary, and


___ 10. Using location information

___ 11. Developing search strategies for print and electronic 

             resources, including explore, browse, hierarchical,

             and  analytical searches

___ 12. Knowing when to get help

___ 13. Evaluating the results of the search strategy


         Pappas, M.L., & Tepe, A.E. (1997).  Pathways to knowledge: Follett's Information Skills Model (3rd ed.).  McHenry, IL:  Follett Software.  Available:


First grade students have been reading and listening to How the Leopard Got His Spots. The students are going to create a wall mural showing the animals in their various habitats. Once students have created a mind map organizing what they know about the colors of animals, they are ready to search for more information. The teacher and school library media specialist help students locate books, videos, and electronic sources about animals at the library media center. Students identify the colors of animals and the colors of the habitats where the animals live. The class visits a zoo and students record information about the colors of animals and their habitats. They also take pictures with the digital camera of animals in their habitats, which will be used later to help students create drawings for their class mural.