F. Art



Checklist - anchor

Application/Examples - anchor

Note.  Printed with permission from National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, (Early Childhood and Middle Childhood/Art Standards, 1998; Early Adolescence through Young Adulthood/Art Standards, 1996), www.nbpts.org. All rights reserved. 


1. Early and middle childhood

___a. Goals of art education

___b. Knowledge of students as learners

___c. Equity and diversity

___d. Content of art

___e. Curriculum and instruction

___f. Instructional resources and technology

___g. Learning environments

___h. Collaboration with families, schools, and communities

___i. Assessment, evaluation, and reflection on teaching and learning 


2. Early adolescence through young adulthood 

___a. Goals and purposes of art education

___b. Knowledge of students

___c. The content and teaching of art

___d. Learning environment

___e. Instructional resources

___f. Collaboration with colleagues

___g. Collaboration with families

___h. Reflection, assessment, and evaluation 


1. Early and Middle Childhood

___a. Goals of art education

  • Teachers are knowledgeable about the theories that guide current practice, and they use this knowledge to develop their own personal philosophies of art and education, the foundation of their classroom practice.

  • Teachers maintain high goals for art education, and they comprise a flexible vision of art education according to which every child is to have rich opportunities to learn and succeed through high-quality, comprehensive, sequential, standards-based programs of study.

  • Teachers hold high expectations that their students will be able to communicate ideas and feelings through the creation of works of art; respond to, interpret, and evaluate the complex characteristics of works of art; understand the roles and functions of artists and works of art in cultures, times, and places; perceive, understand, and appreciate the diverse meanings and values of works of art; and make valid connections among the content of art, other subject areas in the curriculum, and everyday life.

  • Teachers strive to enable students to perceive, understand, and appreciate the diverse meanings and values of works of art. They understand the challenge of seeking solutions to questions about beauty, excellence, and worth. They engage students in dialogues, challenge their assumptions and attitudes about works of art, and seek to enlighten them about aesthetic issues and ideas. 

  • Teachers model the roles of working artists, art critics, aestheticians, art historians, and art educators. They understand aesthetics, which helps them set their goals for teaching. They know and can articulate what they and others respond to in works of art.

___b. Knowledge of students as learners 

  • To help students develop to their fullest potential, teachers constantly work to understand what students know, how they think, what they value, who they are, where they come from, and what motivates them. To gain these understandings, teachers observe and listen to students as they work, learn, and play in a variety of settings. Throughout the school day, teachers are guided by what they know about human development, their observations of students, and their belief that all students can appreciate, understand, and create art.

  • Teachers' understanding of students is informed by an appreciation of the artistic, intellectual, social, physical, ethical, and emotional development that occurs in early and middle childhood. They know that students will not progress artistically until they are ready cognitively. They understand the integrated nature of artistic development, which involves language, movement, and graphic representation. As processes of learning evolve, students use prior knowledge, skills, and experiences to develop various repertoires for artistic growth. Teachers build on the uniqueness of student creativity, honor different ways of knowing, and encourage learning through inquiry. 

  • Teachers respond to age-related changes by providing each student greater opportunities to learn important art concepts and ideas and thus find success, enjoyment, and a growing measure of self-confidence through schoolwork. Teachers use their observations to gather information about children and to inform the design of art learning experiences.

  • Teachers are attuned to the special characteristics of individual students. These include exceptionalities such as learning disabilities, giftedness, and cognitive, social, emotional, linguistic, or physical needs. The basic stance of accomplished teachers is one of acceptance and support of their students. Teachers carefully select and use appropriate instructional resources, including specialized equipment. 

___c. Equity and diversity 

  • Teachers foster the development and participation of all their students and understand that art, by its nature, encompasses diverse subject matter that builds on the unique characteristics of each learner. They view the many forms of diversity manifest in their students as opportunities for creating a rich environment, successful social interactions, and meaningful learning.

  • Teachers are sensitive to their students as cultural beings; they know how culture impacts the way students learn and that children of different cultures might come to the classroom with prior learning experiences that distinguish them from their peers.

  • Teachers understand the importance of respecting cultural values and norms that students bring from home. Including artists of both genders, educators teach using artwork, materials, and processes that come from a range of traditions and from various ethnicities, cultures, and languages.

  • Teachers know that stereotypical thinking and prejudicial behavior are, in part, the result of ignorance of individual differences and commonalities. Fairness and respect for individuals permeate the instructional practices of accomplished teachers.

  • Teachers value and foster equity in their classrooms; they encourage all students to participate in learning experiences in ways that are instructionally sound for them as individual learners.

___d. Content of art 

  • Teachers have a thorough knowledge of the discipline of the visual arts that extends to the perception, production, study, interpretation, and judgment of works of art and design made by artists and designers from various cultures, historical periods, and locations.

  • Teachers know and understand various forms of art and their complex attributes, origins, contents, and contexts. They also know that the creation and study of art are inextricably intertwined. Teachers fully understand the unique language of the domain and the way visual images and forms communicate meaning. 

  • Teachers are knowledgeable about the world of art--traditional, popular, and contemporary. They also understand that the study of art is a meaningful, fulfilling, lifelong endeavor.

  • Teachers value a comprehensive approach to art education through the integration of art making, art criticism, art history, and aesthetics. They combine a breadth of general content knowledge with in-depth knowledge in at least one area of expertise.

___e. Curriculum and instruction 

  • Teachers clearly understand how the art curriculum delivered in their classrooms fits into the larger context of education and interacts with larger communities, working collaboratively to ensure the comprehensive education of children.

  • In formulating their own goals for art curricula, teachers weigh their knowledge of students to determine the developmental appropriateness of curricular content and its relevance to the interests of diverse learners.

  • In designing curriculum, teachers consider multiple modes of learning, different kinds of expression, varying learning styles, and other factors that affect student achievement.

  • A comprehensive, balanced curriculum includes units of instruction that enhance students' ability to respond to and think critically about works of art.

  • The pedagogy of art teachers involves the sophisticated integration of their deep knowledge and understanding of the domain of art, instructional methodologies, and curriculum. They also recognize the importance of specific teaching contexts in shaping their selection of teaching strategies.

  • The instructional delivery of art teachers is marked by smoothness, clarity, and coherence. When a shift in emphasis or approach is needed, teachers adjust with skill and efficiency. Classroom routines are handled smoothly, transitions flow easily, few disruptions mar the focus on learning, and students and teachers work together harmoniously.

___f. Instructional resources and technology 

  • To enable students to experience fully the multifaceted dimensions of art, teachers work to ensure that students have access to comprehensive resources.

  • Teachers continually seek and review new materials and instructional resources.

  • Teachers modify tools and equipment to meet the requirements of special-needs students. Teachers also use materials that are adaptable for multiple forms and levels of engagement and that suggest connections with student interests and prior experiences.

  • Teachers define technology broadly to include a wide range of electronic and information resources.

  • In situations in which resources are meager and funds limited, teachers are models of resourcefulness.

  • While proactively working to rectify inequities in instructional resources, teachers strive to locate external resources.

  • Teachers are adept at selecting high-quality materials that help meet their instructional goals.

  • They use these materials appropriately and creatively and are careful to choose materials that are academically sound and have true educational merit.

  • To enrich learning experiences, teachers enlist the knowledge and expertise of their colleagues.

  • Teachers also extend their classroom beyond school, as they see their local communities as an important resource.

___g. Learning environments 

  • The learning environments created by teachers are organized and well designed and exhibit an imaginative and functional use of space. Teachers thoughtfully alter the arrangement of their leaning spaces to best accomplish their instructional objectives.

  • Teachers establish environments in which the value of art, art content, art values, individuals, and learning are held in high regard. Such environments are supportive, congenial, and purposeful, contributing to the active engagement of students.

  • Teachers create an atmosphere in which students respect and feel comfortable with the study and experiences of art.

  • Teachers encourage and expect accomplishment in art that leads to artistic, conceptual, social, and emotional development. In addition, they are consistent in the application of their expectations to all students.

  • Teachers anticipate situations that might provoke crises or conflicts in the classroom and know how to avoid or mitigate their effects. Moreover, teachers skillfully manage and resolve unanticipated crises and conflicts.

  • Teachers have a repertoire of activities and teaching strategies that encourage the virtues of acceptance and open-mindedness.

  • Teachers and students work out procedures for organizing the classroom and participating in regular activities. They also understand the importance of creating learning environments where students can work collaboratively without conflict.

___h. Collaboration with families, schools, and communities 

  • Art teachers collaborate with other teachers in the school to locate art resources and to identify issues, concepts, or themes that can be explored in an interdisciplinary manner. They also seek to learn about the activities of other teachers in order to connect the art education program to other worthwhile learning experiences.

  • Teachers see their responsibilities as professionals as including a commitment to their continuing professional development as well as that of their colleagues, their schools, and the general field of art education.

  • Teachers understand the impact that planning, facilities, staffing, professional development, instructional resources, scheduling, and financing have on student learning in art, and they communicate with the appropriate school personnel to inform and influence decision makers.

  • Learning about family backgrounds and cultures helps teachers gain insight into parental expectations and aspirations for their children.

  • Teachers communicate with families about their children's accomplishments, successes, and need for improvement. They make every attempt to respond thoughtfully to family concerns.

  • Interaction with parents helps teachers establish an invaluable rapport with families. Educators persistently, actively, and creatively seek to involve parents and guardians in the educational process.

___i. Assessment, evaluation, and reflection on teaching and

  • Teachers use a variety of assessments for different purposes in collecting and communicating information about their students, their instruction, and their programs. They know how to select, construct, design, and adapt various assessment methodologies to use in diagnosing and evaluating student learning. Moreover, they constantly adhere to principles of equity, fairness, validity, reliability, and equal opportunity in assessment situations.

  • Teachers are reflective, as they regularly monitor, analyze, and evaluate their teaching and student progress in order to expand their knowledge and strengthen their practice.

  • Teachers use a variety of assessment and evaluation methods, encourage student self- and peer assessment, and effectively report assessment and evaluation results to students, families, colleagues, policymakers, and the public.

2. Early Adolescence through Young Adulthood
___a. Goals and purposes of art education

  • Teachers set ambitious goals for students based on clear conceptions of how art links students to broad human purposes.

  • Teachers reflect critically on the goals and purposes of art education while making principled decisions about practice.

  • They hold high expectations for all students.

  • Teachers convey the importance of art to the individual and society.

___b. Knowledge of students 

  • Teachers demonstrate an understanding of the development of adolescents and young adults in relationships to their art learning, recognize their interests, abilities, and needs, and use this information to make instructional decisions.

  • Teachers demonstrate an understanding of the development of adolescents and young adults in relation to art learning (by using art as a means to explore issues salient to adolescents).

  • Teachers insightfully observe students and student work to understand individual differences that exist in the classroom.

  • Teachers know that students may take different paths to the understanding and creation of art.

___c. The content and teaching of art 

  • Teachers use their knowledge of art and students to help the latter make, study, interpret, and evaluate works of art.

  • Teachers immerse students in a rich body of art content that supports important instructional objectives.

  • Teachers combine a breadth of general content knowledge with in-depth knowledge and skill in at least one area of expertise--art making, criticism, history, or philosophy.

  • Teachers help students understand that every work of art possesses the following features: form or type, forming process, expressive qualities, ideational aspects, a context, an interpretation.

  • Teachers help students understand that art works may profoundly affect human experiences in a variety of ways.

  • Teachers help students make art while promoting student understanding of how and why works of art are made.

  • Teachers help students experience and understand art.

  • They engage students in the study, interpretation, and evaluation of works of art, including works of different artists and cultures, as well as those by peers and themselves.

___d. Learning environment 

  • Teachers establish environments where individuals, art content, and inquiry are held in high regard and where students can actively learn and create.

  • Teachers ensure that learning environments are organized, well designed, and exhibit an imaginative and functional use of space where visual images abound, ensuring an inviting place to experience and make art.

  • Teachers create climates that promote social responsibility, self-discipline, and equity for all students.

  • Expectations for students are clear and consistently applied.

  • Students are encouraged to experiment in their work and set high standards for themselves.

  • Teachers are supportive of their students by applying principles of fairness when recognizing competence, effort, or performance; when allocating time, learning opportunities, or other resources; or when placing students in groups.

  • Teachers use the study of works of art to share with students how others have confronted philosophical and ethical questions through art, thus providing the basis for open student expression, discussion, and debate about important human issues.

  • Teachers model decision-making behavior.

  • Teachers manage and resolve crises and conflicts, both anticipated and unanticipated.

  • Teachers create and maintain a safe and instructionally effective learning environment.

___e. Instructional resources 

  • Teachers create, select, and adapt a variety of resources and materials that support students as they learn through and about art.

  • Resources include materials to make art as well as slides, prints, books, original works of art, videodiscs, videotapes, CD-ROMs, computer software, and environmental resources (local artists, community groups, museums, galleries, libraries, and physical surroundings).

___f. Collaboration with colleagues 

  • Teachers work with colleagues to improve schools and advance knowledge and practice in their field.

  • Teachers contribute to the intellectual, creative, cultural and artistic life of the school and to the quality of instruction throughout the school.

  • Teachers contribute to the growth of the profession.

  • They are advocates for the arts and work to influence policies that affect art education.

___g. Collaboration with families 

  • Teachers work with families to achieve common goals for the education of their children.

  • Teachers develop relationships with families to gain valuable insight into students.

  • They encourage family communication and involvement with student learning in art.

___h. Reflection, assessment, and evaluation 

  • Teachers are reflective.
  • They regularly monitor, analyze, and evaluate their teaching and student progress in order to expand their knowledge and strengthen their practice.

  • They use a variety of assessment and evaluation methods, encourage student self-assessment, and effectively report assessment and evaluation results to students, families, colleagues, policymakers, and the public.

  • Teachers systematically reflect upon their influence on students, are open to new ideas, seek advice, and continually refine their practice.

  • Teachers conduct meaningful and appropriate assessments and evaluations of programs and student progress to make quality instructional decisions and report results in ways that are meaningful to students, families, administrators, policymakers, and the public.

  • Teachers create fair and equitable assessments that attend to skills and understandings central to the content of art.