How INTIME Goals Developed

Goals for INTIME were developed as a response to reports from the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the federal Office of Technology Assessment (OTA).  These reports have called attention to existing deficiencies in teacher preparation programs in preparing preservice teachers to use technology effectively in the PreK-12 classroom. Technology and the New Professional Teacher (NCATE, 1997) reports that preservice teachers should be required to apply technology in their courses and should see faculty model technology use in the classroom. In addition, Teachers and Technology: Making the Connection (OTA, 1995) suggests that in teacher preparation programs where faculty model technology use, students will adopt the use of educational technology in their instruction.

According to conclusions drawn by the OTA, it is not enough to tell students about what is possible. "They must see technology used by their instructors, observe uses of technological tools in classrooms, and practice teaching with technologies themselves if they are to use these tools effectively in their own teaching" (OTA, 1995, p. 185). It is far more common, however, for education faculty to discuss technology, have students read about it or demonstrate technology, rather than model it or require students to incorporate technology use into their lessons or units (OTA, 1995, p. 185).

In response, the purpose of the INTIME project is to provide the necessary resources for methods faculty to revise their courses to model technology integration and require teacher education students to apply technology, along with components of quality education, in their lessons and units.

NCATE (1997) identifies five reasons for the lack of technology integration in teacher education courses.  The INTIME project goals are responding directly to these deficiencies: 

  1. Teacher education programs lack sufficient hardware and software.  

  2. Education departments lack sufficient technical support.

  3. Teacher education faculty lack the knowledge, skills, and training that support technology integration in their teaching.

  4. Teacher education faculty are out of touch with what is happening in PreK-12 classrooms, including the rapid introduction of technology.

  5. The academic culture rewards and recognizes individuality among faculty, rather than valuing a common vision about technology and incentives to seek professional development.


             National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. (1997). Technology and the new professional teacher: Preparing for the 21st century classroom. Washington, DC: Author.


             U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. (1995). Teachers and technology: Making the connection (OTA-HER-616). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.